Bredt’s rule and Decarboxylation (Of beta-carboxylic acids)

Unless rings are large enough (Bredt’s Rule), At small bicyclic bridgehead positions, planarity is difficult to attain, in other words, bridgehead carbon cannot have a pure “p” orbital. Hence, Bridgehead free radicals are pyramidal. Bridgehead carbocations are not possible. At bridgehead carbons, the double bond is not possible. Unlike I, II (being a bridgehead olefin) […]

Shielding effect and Effective nuclear charge

CALCULATION OF Zeff: Slater’s Rules 1) Write the electron configuration for the atom using the following design ( Write the electronic structure of the atom in groupings as follows): (1s), (2s, 2p), (3s, 3p), (3d), (4s, 4p), (4d), (4f), (5s, 5p), (5d), (5f)… 2) Any electrons of principal quantum number higher than the “electron of […]

Understanding the Myriad of Inorganic chemistry

Did you know: What is Bond order of CO+?  Well, it’s 3.5 F2 is best oxidising agent? Well, it’s wrong. Check p-273, Q8.16 NCERT XI Chemistry. Perxenate ion, (XeO6)4– is Stronger oxidising agent than F2. Solid PCl5, solid PBr5, solid GaCl2, solid XeF6, solid N2O5, solid N2O4, solid N2O3 , solid Cl2O6, solid I2Cl6, are […]

Stereoisomerism in Coordination complexes | 22 Tips | Class 12| IIT JEE | AIIMS

Given below are 22 tips to never miss a question on stereoisomerism in complexes. Understand and remember following points. [A and B are monodentate ligands. AA is symmetrical bidentate ligand like en (ethylenediamine or ethane-1,2-diamine), ox (oxalato) etc. AB is unsymmetrical bidentate ligand like gly(glycinato) etc.] 1.Tetrahedral complexes do not exhibit geometrical isomerism as all […]

Effervescence of CO2 with aq NaHCO3

Due to resonance effect(delocalisation of negative charge) phenoxide ion is less basic than alkoxide ion. This means that phenol is more acidic than alcohol. NaHCO3 is the basic sodium salt of carbonic acid, H2CO3 (pKa1 = 6.3, pKa2 =10.25) a diprotic acid which exists only in small amounts in aqueous solution & CO2+H2O↽−−⇀H2CO3 lies mainly on the backward side (this […]

Basic Character of amines

Larger the value of Kb or Smaller the value of pKb (=-logKb), the stronger is the base. Any factor which increases lone-pair availability towards protonation increase the basic character. Electron releasing groups (ERG) increase e- density of bases or stabilises “cationic conjugate acids” & hence increase basic character. Basic Character is proportional to Stability of corresponding […]

Acidic & Basic character – Tricks-Part 1

Generally, phenol derivatives & benzoic acid derivatives have similar order of acidic character whereas aniline derivatives have opposite order, however look out for exceptions to this trick as we discuss here. Below, acidic character order & pka values of phenol & benzoic acid derivatives & Basic character order & pkb values of aniline derivatives are […]